Normally, the process of urination should not be accompanied by unpleasant sensations. If a man feels a burning sensation, pain, pain when emptying the bladder, this is a cause for serious concern.
Causes of Pain
In some cases, a burning sensation during urination can occur after ingestion of spicy strongly peppered food, during hypothermia, urination in the cold. These conditions always pass very quickly and have no consequences.
Acute and chronic urethritis
In urethritis, the pathogen invades the mucous membrane of the urinary tract and causes active inflammation. The clinic of the disease depends on the pathogen itself.
- With gonorrhea, the causative agent of which is gonococcus, strong pains develop during urination, accompanied by false urges and purulent discharge from the urethra.
- With trichomoniasis, foamy discharge of a yellow-green hue appears, accompanied by itching of the genital organs.
- If chlamydia is to blame for the development of urethritis, then pains in the lower abdomen join, discharge with a pungent smell, joints can be affected.
- With fairly frequent, at present, fungal lesions (thrush), a cheesy plaque on the glans penis, redness, and itching during intercourse are characteristic. Thrush was previously more common among women, but in recent years, its defeat in the male part of the population has sharply increased.
Urethritis is an inflammation of the urethra (urethra). Such inflammation is accompanied by pains and pains.
Movement of stones and sand from the kidneys
Passing through the urethra, calculi and sand cause a violation of the discharge of urine and sharp pain and burning. In this case, the condition is accompanied by pain in the lower back and along the ureter. Blood and mucus may appear in the urine.
Prostatitis and prostate adenoma
With lesions of the prostate, pain and burning may also appear during the act of urination. But these pathologies are always accompanied by other complaints and symptoms – aching pain in the perineum and lower abdomen, impaired potency, fever.
Urethral stricture is a narrowing of the urethra after chronic inflammation or trauma. Pathology is accompanied by difficulty urinating. In addition to pain, the patient complains of the need to push hard; urine is separated slowly, in portions, sprayed. The bladder emptying is not complete at the same time, repeated urge often occurs.
Urethral stricture (narrowing) is one of the causes of pain during urination.
Injuries, consequences of catheter insertion
Against the background of injuries of the inguinal region and after the introduction of the catheter, damage to the urethral mucosa may occur, which passes on its own after some period of time. This can be accompanied by burning and pain, which are reversible.
Diagnostics and instrumental research methods
For the correct diagnosis, it is necessary to identify all related complaints in the patient and conduct instrumental and laboratory research methods.
A smear from the urethra helps to identify the pathogen that causes inflammation of the urethra.
- With urethritis, the most informative is a smear from the urethra, which identifies the pathogen and helps to choose an antibacterial drug.
- With urolithiasis, ultrasound and contrast radiography come to the rescue. They help to clearly determine the localization of calculi and determine the correct treatment.
- If pain during urination occurs against the background of prostatitis or prostate adenoma, then a rectal digital examination comes to the aid of the diagnosis. A doctor, palpating an enlarged inflamed prostate, can determine the severity of inflammation and take a discharge for microscopic analysis to identify the pathogen. Confirms the diagnosis of ultrasound of the prostate, which is performed with a full bladder.
- With stricture of the urethra, ultrasound, contrast urography, and retrograde urethrography help diagnose. It also helps to determine the degree of narrowing rate of urine output over a period of time.
After a correct diagnosis, the doctor may prescribe a profile adequate treatment.
- Urethritis. With urethritis, antibiotics or other antibacterial drugs are prescribed depending on the pathogen. With acute urethritis and early treatment, complete recovery is possible. Sluggish chronic processes are more difficult to treat and require additional measures (stimulating, restorative drugs, adaptogens).
- Urolithiasis disease. With urolithiasis, the method of ultrasonic crushing is widely used. With the localization of stones in the bladder, it is sometimes difficult to aim the apparatus during crushing directly on the calculus due to its high mobility. In this case, an endoscope and special tools are used – lithotriptors, which are injected directly into the bladder.
- Pathology of the prostate. In the treatment of chronic prostatitis requires an integrated approach. In addition to antibacterial drugs (antibiotics, nitrofurans), general restorative, physiotherapy, and prostate massage through the rectum are recommended. With severe inflammation, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs), antispasmodics (papaverine, no-spa) are prescribed. Electrical stimulation and magnetotherapy help a lot. The effectiveness of the measures taken strongly depends on the stage of the process and its severity.
- Urethral stricture. Laser treatment is widely used in the treatment of urethral strictures with concomitant cuts during urination. Urethroplasty is also effective, in which the patient’s donor tissue (sections of the mucous membrane of the cheek or foreskin) is transplanted into the affected area of the urethra. Tissues take root well and restore the flow of urine.
- The consequences of catheterization. Cramping and pain after the introduction of a catheter, as a rule, does not require additional treatment and passes on its own. But you need to be completely sure that the infection does not join and the cause is only related to catheterization. Sometimes a short course of nitrofurans (5-noc, nitroxaline) is sometimes prescribed to prevent infection.
Forecast and Prevention
Pain and pain during urination in men, as a rule, disappear with the proper treatment of the underlying disease. It is important not to start the inflammatory process, not to self-medicate and not to allow chronic infection.
For the prevention of pathology, it is necessary:
- observe genital hygiene;
- do not supercool;
- avoid promiscuous sexual intercourse;
- identify and treat urinary tract infections on time.